3.4.2 Nanotechnology Impact
Currently, there are hundreds of kinds of nanomaterials in use or under development, both in their pure form and as composites. Examples include carbon, tungsten, titanium and cobalt, as well as many technical ceramics, such as aluminium oxide, silicon carbide and their composites.
In the area of Nanofiltration new bias become apparent, those go towards the timing of the execution, larger plant sizes, low pressure operation and also higher organic levels, which lead to a high fouling potential. Other trends show the development of a specific permeate hardness target and the limits concerning the disinfection of filtration by-products.
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