9.1 Executive Summary
A European Strategy on Security was adopted in 2003. The European Security and Defence policy as a part of the common Foreign and Security policy has deployed 20 missions in response to incidents. The use of various policy instruments in European Union (EU) has contributed to security of society, improving equality, human rights and good governance. The policy and missions adopted by the EU are linked to the United Nations objectives in security. The European Security Strategy aims to address the security challenges such as proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism and organised crime, energy security, cyber security, climate change, securing industrial supply chains and trade routes, and responding to natural disasters.
The rapidly changing dynamics of present times and forces in a globally integrated world are a reflection of the numerous challenges facing societies in protecting civilians and civilian infrastructure. Recent acts of aggression in London and Madrid bombings have revealed the weaknesses of security provisions in civilian zones. Risk and threats that have multiple dimensions need to be addressed for maintaining harmony and peace. The disruptions in civil society may arise from natural elements or divisive human forces. Technology can act as an enabler in assisting agencies in operational situations, where limitation of time and unknown quantity of risk presents itself. Technology research and development can enhance capabilities in supporting security missions for maintaining peace and harmony in society.
The European Security Research Advisory Board (ESRAB) had produced a strategic framework for structuring research on technology and non-technological aspects. In a multidisciplinary approach to research aligned with strategic missions, capability development and systems development has been identified of prime importance. The technical research in ESRAB was grouped based on capability development, system development and system of system demonstration. These research areas were focused on addressing mission specific needs or multi-mission needs. The mission areas identified under ESRAB were border security, protection against terrorism and organised crime, critical infrastructure protection, and restoring security in case of crisis. A cross mission analysis was conducted as a part of the scope. The capability enhancement was focused into the following functional groups: detection, identification and authentication; situational awareness and assessment including surveillance; risk assessment, modelling and impact reduction; positioning and localisation; command and control; intervention; doctrine and operations; incident response; information management; communication; training exercise.
Nanotechnology research and development can enhance security capabilities that enable critical security missions. An illustration of a capabilities enhancement by nanotechnology research is shown in figure E.1. The segmentation of nanotechnology applications for security was done based on enhancement of capabilities and missions identified in ESRAB. The mission specific capabilities enhancements are largely categorized into existing, new and advanced.
The segmentation of the security technology sector was done into four sub-sectors: ‘detection', ‘protection', ‘incident support', and ‘anti-counterfeiting, authentication and positioning'. The detection sub-sector is further divided into technology segments for ‘chemical', ‘biological', ‘radiological and nuclear', ‘explosive' (CBRNE) weapons and ‘narcotics' detection. The research and development observations in the protection sub-sector is further done by technology segments defined as ‘protection of civilians and civilian security agencies', ‘ equipment and infrastructure protection', and ‘condition monitoring of civilian zones and infrastructure'. The research and development observations in incident support segment have been done based on nanotechnologies relevant to ‘decontamination', ‘forensic' and ‘neutralising CBRNE effect'. The final segment has nanotechnologies research and development analysed based on ‘anti-counterfeiting, authentication and positioning and localisation' (AAPL). A definition of the each of the technology segments is available from each of the sub-sector report. A visual representation of the segmentation of capabilities can be seen in Figure E.2 below.
The observations in each of the technology segments from the literature review were classified into the technology readiness level. These were defined into 6 levels representing research (fundamental and applied), development (prototype and field trails) and application (niche and mass deployment). Gaps in implementation and further research needs have been identified for the above technology segments that relate to specific missions. The technology segment observations have also taken interaction with aspects of commercialisation, environment health and safety issues, ethical, societal and regulatory aspects into consideration. The expert engagement process through surveys, interviews and workshops were used to validate the findings and refine the course of future work. Observations from workshop discussion were recorded and synthesized through a group of observers along with the moderator.
The methodology is limited in not being able to present an exhaustive view of all technology research and developments taking place across the world. Among other methodology challenges are balancing the width of technology monitoring and analysis, balancing knowledge representation in profile of experts engage and improving the comparative assessment between world regions taking national language publications into consideration.
The growing threat from terror related activities to civilian security presents a significant challenge to policymakers and security agencies. The observations in the detection segment have been made with a view to assist civilian agencies and policymakers in identifying technology developments of materials and devices between 1-100 nm that may prove to be useful in safeguarding civilians by detecting substance posing a significant threat. The approach taken for detection has been that of identifying development that enable devices or instruments used in detection of different species. The risk agents have been defined in the initial part, where chemical biological, radiological dispersive devices, nuclear and explosives (CBRNE) weapons are the main focus of the detection sub-sector. The observations also address nanotechnology developments in detecting narcotics. The scientific species have then been related to specific enabling nanoscale technologies and devices integrating them. The observations are intended to provide an overview of the current state of the art and the development trajectory.
The detection of chemical weapons by identification of chemical species can be accomplished by a range of sensing methods, and instruments. The nanotechnology development mentioned in the observations for chemical weapons detection are electronic noses, conductive polymers, field effect transistors, piezoelectric sensors, field effect transistors, piezoelectric sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, flexural plate wave sensors, sensor arrays, optical fibres, cantilever mechanism, chemiresistive action, chemicapacitive sensing and spectroscopic methods. Nanotechnology research and development for explosive detection has been observed. These observations are based on electrochemical sensing, mass based detection, optical sensing, biosensors, Terahertz detection, photoluminescence, cataluminescence, nanosensors, and nanowires based methods for explosive detection. The methods for detecting biological toxins are based on molecular recognition, self assembled bilayers, biosensors, metallic nanowires, Terahertz waves. Detection of radioisotopes based on methods based on sensor networks, radiation portal monitoring equipment, cantilever based detection, mass spectrometry, nuclear resonance fluorescence, electronic neutron dosimeter and neutron imaging camera has been mentioned. The role of radiation detection material, nanocomposites, and nanomaterials for detectors has been observed. Narcotics detection based on membranes, portable detection systems, mass spectrometry, and Raman scattering has been observed.
The nanotechnologies for various detection methods have been observed to be in different stages from applied research, to prototypes and developments that are undergoing field trials. The pace of technological developments is variable for the different detection methodologies used. Demand for specific additional research and desired functionality for detection has been further elaborated. Each technology segment identifies the drivers and barriers for research affecting the development of detection. The main drivers for detection research were considered as technological and social impact, while the main barriers were considered to be inadequate finance availability and insufficient technology transfer from Universities. Essential functionalities have been outlined, application specific trends and needs identified. Deployment of detection technologies, future development and factors affecting uptake and penetration has also been reported for the above mentioned detection methods. A relative comparison of regional competencies of Europe, North America and Asia has also been reported qualitative. A number of qualitative suggestions such as collaborative research, tax exemptions, technology transition and fund allocation for improvement of capabilities have also been mentioned in the technology segment.
The outcomes of the workshop on an integrated platform for CBRNE detection enabled by nanotechnology held in Dusseldorf were that technology was not sufficiently advanced to achieve a single platform for CBRNE detection. It was recommended that an integrated modular system that focuses on chemical, biological and explosive detection as one unit and radiological-nuclear detection as another unit may be a better approach. It was agreed that systems integration for CBRNE detection was a major challenge. Suggestion were made regarding producing a statement of requirements taking nanotechnology into consideration. Accuracy and reliability of measurement was considered to be the most important characteristics. Reproducibility of measurements and operating life of sensors were considered poor for a modular system. A need for greater understanding in the sensing mechanism through fundamental research was emphasised. The first application of integrated platform was expected to be transportation hubs. The demand for development and uptake of technology would be driven by the state as agreed in the expert engagement process.
While there are a number of developments going on at present for detection of different threat agents, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome. Some of the challenges that need to be overcome are integration of a large number of sensors, high sensitivity and specific detection of toxins. The detection method observed present one advantage over another method due to a range of causal factors. A number of complimentary approaches are in practice, though integration of detection of multiple species on a single platform remains an ongoing challenge.
The incident support function in civilian security serves to provide relief to victims of an attack or a crime directed unknowingly or with intent against them. The responses and measures are through medical aid offered to victims and neutralisation of CBRNE effects. Incident support function also aims to neutralise and decontaminate the environment, civilian infrastructure and vital utilities such as water supply. Forensic analysis of evidence at crime scenes is also a vital part of this function. It aims to establish the causal link in a crime or terrorist act. Nanotechnology research and development enhancing capabilities of Incident Support have been observed.
The neutralisation of effects of chemical and biological attack on civilian population has been observed. Prophylactic antidotes for neurotoxic organosphosphorus compounds have been mentioned. Diagnosis and pharmaceutical countermeasures such as vaccines, sera and medicine have been observed as neutralisation means. A number of delivery methods of antidotes based on nanoparticles for targeted delivery, antidote carrying capacity and release has been observed for a range of methods. Improved diagnostics based on quantum dots, nano-enabled biosensors, molecular imaging and lab on a chip has been mentioned for incident support functions. The neutralisation of radiological and nuclear effects using nanosized magnetic sorbent, zircon, nanostructured sodium silcotitanate and super adsorbent polymer gels have been mentioned for environmental remediation of radio nucleotides. The use of mass spectrometry in determining environmental contamination has been reported. Biodegradable nanospeheres have been observed for removing toxins from blood stream of victims. The incident response through provision of medical aid for victims of explosions has been observed. Self assembled peptides forming nanofibrous barriers in stopping bleeding of victims has been mentioned. Research and development in nano-scale innovation is expected to enhance capabilities in surgery for victims of explosion. Bone and dental implants enabled by titanium dioxide have been reported. Nanophase materials, ceramic nanoparticles, nanocomposites and nanotubes have been reported to have applications in implants. The application of nanofibres in tissue engineering, magnetic nanoparticles as coatings on stents, carbon nanotubes based regeneration of neurons, biodegradable polymer scaffolds, and nanowires in implants are expected to benefit medical aid provided to explosion victims. The use of nanoscale silver and nanofibrous membranes provide benefits in wound care dressing.
Research and development at a nanoscale enabling capabilities in forensic analysis and criminal investigation has been observed in literature. The detection of latent fingerprints evidence and establishing an association with a crime remains of utmost importance in serving justice. The use of optical, physical, and chemical techniques has been observed for fingerprint detection. The use of quantum dots, nanocomposites, metal nanoparticles of gold and silver, metal oxide nanoparticles of titanium and zinc, nanoparticles metal sulphide of cadmium and zinc have been observed. The use of microscopy and spectroscopy methods have been observed in the analysis of forged documents, hand writing, fingerprints, damaged electronic devices, gun shot residue, and firearm identification. Biosensors have also been reported to have forensic applications. DNA identification has an important role in forensics with a number of developments that have been reported. Methods such as geno-magnetic nanocapture, single molecule spectroscopy, electrochemical sensors and lab-on- a- chip developments have been observed.
Decontamination of the environment and infrastructure are essential incident support function following a contamination event. A number of nanoscale materials are being researched for decontamination applications. Nanosized metal halogen adducts nanocrystals of magnesium oxide, photocatalytic titanium dioxide coatings, silica coated nanoparticles, and nanocrystalline zeolites have been observed. Photocatalytic nanowires have been mentioned for breaking down environmental toxins in the air. Silica xerogels for removing toxic gases, nanoporous keratin fibres for removing heavy metals, nanofibrous membrane for removing particulates in liquids have been mentioned as remediation measures. Nanoporous membranes for removing pores from air, nanoceramic membranes decontamination of mercury, and use of nanocrystalline silver in filters for decontamination of water has been observed as research development.
The state of research and development for neutralising effects of CBRNE, Forensics, and Decontamination range from applied research, protyping, field trials and deployed for use. The vast majority of observations are in the applied research state while some have reached field trials. Further demand for research has been reported along with the current situation in Europe through the framework projects. The drivers and barriers for research in incident support have been reported. The drivers for research were considered to be technological and societal impact. The main barriers were considered as availability of finance and intellectual property conflict. Important functionality requirements, expected development course and factors affecting the uptake of applications have also been observed from the expert engagement process. The most attractive and growth markets in the above mentioned applications were also indicated in the process. North America effort in the sub-sector was considered to be better than other world region for research, development and commercialisation for decontamination. In forensics, an area considered to be of limited research, EU was considered to at par with other world regions. For neutralising CBRNE effects, North American and EU research were considered to be at par. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles was identified as a concern requiring greater research and validation.
Nanotechnology research and development to provide protection to civilians, civilian agencies and infrastructure has been observed in the literature. The protection function is served by shields made out of nano-scale materials. The materials provide shielding against chemical, biological, radionucliotides, ballistic projectiles, sharp objects and electromagnetic interference. The protection of equipment and infrastructure threat agents physical, natural and electronic has been observed. The rapid proliferation of asymmetric threats has made it necessary not only to protect but also to continually monitor the condition of the environment within civilian zones and that of infrastructure. The information and communication integration with active monitoring is considered important for prevention and mitigation of the impact from threat agents.
Protective barrier suits functionalised with nanoscale material has been observed to act as a barrier against chemical and biological species. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide in a nanocomposite membrane have been observed for enhancing protection capabilities. Nanofibres of polymer have been reported to enhance protection functionalities against CBRNE agents. Nanocomposite for body armour application, multilayer polymer thin films have been incorporated into body suits for neutralising chemical and biological agents have been reported. The use of dendrimers and electro-rheological fluids has also been mentioned for body suit applications. Research has demonstrated the effective use of carbon nanotubes as barrier to ballistic projectiles. Yarns of multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been observed to have excellent reversible damping from projectile impact making it suitable for protective vests.
Protection of infrastructure from ballistic impact and shock waves enabled by nanoscale material has been observed in literature. The use of metal foams, nanometre sized precipitates, ceramic composites have been observed to have infrastructure and equipment protection applications. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been shown to demonstrate super compressible foam like behaviour, acting as energy absorbing surfaces for protection against ballistic projectiles and earthquakes. Inorganic fullerenes of tungsten and molybdenum sulphide have been mentioned to have excellent mechanical and shock resistance behaviour making them suitable for protection against ballistic impact. Protection of infrastructure against fire is possible from the benefits offered by nanoscale materials. Nanoscale layered double hydroxide, nanocomposites of silicon dioxide, nanocomposites of polymer-organoclay, nanocomposites of layered silicates, buckyball nanocomposites and bucky paper have been observed to have fire resistance properties suitable for protection applications.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) presents a significant threat to the highly integrated information and communication networks. A number of research developments have been reported for potential application in EMI shielding. Intrinsically conductive polymers have been observed to be suitable for shielding applications. Nanoscale materials such as nanocrystalline silver coated ceneospheres, lamellar nanocomposites based on polymers such as polyaniline have been observed to be suitable for shielding application due to high conductivity. Organo-clays and polyaniline nanocomposites have been observed to have high conductivities and good mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres in polymer matrix have also shown to have excellent shielding characteristics. Vapour grown carbon nanofibres have been studied for their shielding effectiveness. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and single walled carbon nanotubes are being researched for shielding applications against a wide range of frequencies from the electromagnetic spectrum. Silver colloid nanoparticles in protective thin films and nanoparticles of nickel and iron alloys in expanded graphite have been observed to be in an applied research stage. Nanoscale zinc oxide, carbon nano onions and detonation nano diamond composites are being researched as candidate materials for EMI shielding applications. EMI shielding using materials such as carbon matrix composites with self assembled interconnected carbon nanoribbon network have been researched for low frequency portable electronics applications. Carbon nanotubes and shape memory alloys have also been mentioned for shielding effectiveness.
Capabilities in condition monitoring of infrastructure and civilian zone environment can be enhanced through sensor networks. Nanotechnology research in sensing, information processing, communication and data transfer, storage and providing power can benefit the development of sensor networks and sensory nodes. A number of sensing mechanism based on nanoscale material and phenomena have been observed in the ‘Detection' segment for CBRNE based on physical, chemical, optical, mechanical and electronic changes. Advancements in carbon nanotubes based transistors have been observed that may enhance capabilities processing capabilities of sensor networks. Carbon nanotubes and nanowires have been reported to have applications in communication and data transmission applications. Nanotube based antennas have been reported for communication. A range of nanooptoelectronic components are expected to add value to sensor networks. Advancements in storage are expected to benefits sensor network through the developments in IBM's millipede technology, carbon nanotubes based NRAM, molecular memory, ferroelectric RAM, magnetic RAM, and phase change bridge RAM. Research in nanocrystalline materials and nanotubes for applications in electrodes are expected to enhance the characteristics of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors is being researched which may have potential applications for sensory nodes. The application of solar cells in power harvesting for sensory nodes is also being investigated. The application of quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, polycrystalline thin films, single crystalline thin films, organic and polymer solar cells has been observed to be under research and development. Power harvesting from mechanical vibrations using cantilever and nanowires is also being researched.
The outcomes of a workshop on nanotechnologies enabling sensor networks for detection of CBRNE held in Dusseldorf, was that sensor networks would be valuable for trend monitoring and pattern recognition across cities and in local areas. The greatest value addition from nanotechnology to sensor nodes would be at the sensing layer. While integration of multi-channel sensors was not accomplished, novel sensors could be easily integrated with commercial off the shelf components to produce such a network. The market would be created by the state and consideration should be given to dual use for improving commercial attractiveness.
The vast majority of technological capabilities mentioned in the segment are in the applied research stage with many integration challenges to be fulfilled before the technology becomes a mainstream application for the protection of civilian and civilian infrastructure. The expert engagement process identified the main drivers for research in the protection sub-sector were considered to be technological and safety of citizens. The main barriers were considered to be availability of finance and intellectual property related conflicts. Important functionalities for each of the technology segments were identified and the applications trends noted. Relative comparison of research, EU was considered better for personnel protection while US had better instruments for commercialisation and technology transfer. Qualitative suggestions for improving research and development efficiency were mentioned as tax benefits, introducing commercialisation performance metric for academics, and promotion of scientific security enterprise.
Anti-counterfeiting, Authentication, Positioning and Localisation
Anti-counterfeiting, authentication, positioning and localisation research and development is expected to prevent crime by reducing theft of goods, property and identity. Nanotechnology developments in anti-counterfeiting are expected to improve brand protection by reduction in counterfeiting of technological goods and products. Authentication related nanotechnology research and developments are expected to enhance border security and protection against identity theft. Research enabled by nano-materials is expected to enhance positioning and localisation capabilities. The enhanced positioning capabilities are expected to improve the security of industrial supply chains from theft.
Research in nano-enabled materials, methods and devices has been observed for anti-counterfeiting applications. Nanocomposites of silicates, zeolites and luminescent nanoparticles in photopolymerisable nanocomposites have been researched as recording material for holographic security patterns. Laser surface authentication used to map the surface roughness is under field trials as a potential anti-counterfeiting technology. The physically unclonable function developed by Philips and magnetic fingerprinting technology based on distributing micro-nano scale magnets in non magnetic medium has been observed to offer potential advantages. Three dimensional polymer patterns on a nanoscale, metallic sub-micron rods of gold, silver and platinum, and quantum dots have been observed as nano barcodes for enhancing anti-counterfeiting features. Surface enhanced Raman scattering tags are being developed as potential solutions for anti-counterfeiting. The processing and integration of organic nanofibres, and research into multilayered nanostructures, for bank notes has been observed. Nanoclusters of metal atoms in thin films have been researched for using optical effects in anti-counterfeiting applications. Nanomaterials are being researched and patented for applications in anti-counterfeiting. Nanoscale titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are being developed for application in bank notes, birth certificates and drivers licenses. Single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated as security marks. Diffractive structures for anti-counterfeiting verification have been developed in quantum dots and metallic nanoparticles. The use of gold nanoparticles as composites in security paper has also been observed. The state of research and development for anti-counterfeiting technologies range from fundamental research, applied research, prototype, field trials to commercialised.
Authentication of identify, information and communication play a vital role in preventing crime. Nanomaterials are expected to enable identity verification. Polymer nanocomposites have been observed to have application in security labelling of features such as fingerprints, photograph and signature. Quantum dot doped polymer opal composites have been developed for application as fingerprinting sensors. Optical fluorescent fibres have been developed as anti-counterfeiting technology. Quantum cryptography research is expected to enhance the safety and security of information and communication exchange. The state of enabling nanotechnologies for authentication ranges from fundamental research to field trials.
Radio frequency identification tags are expected to enhance the positioning and localisation of industrial goods by providing enhanced security for the industrial supply chain. Nanotechnology research and development can enhance the performance of RFID components. Conductor patterns based on organic insulated copper and silver nanoparticles have been experimentally demonstrated. Carbon nanotubes antennas have been researched and developed for RFID application. Printed RFID antennas produced from silver nanoparticles ink and nanowires have been observed. Position and Localisation have been observed to be at the applied research stage.
The main drivers for research in AAPL were considered to be technological, economic gain, social impact and regional policy. Brand theft, product theft and forgery were other specific drivers for research in AAPL sub-sector. The main barriers for AAPL were regarded as lack of supporting government policies, access to equipment and infrastructure and lack of technology transfer. Failure to integrate during field trials was regarded as a development barrier. Important functionalities for applications were identified and trends mentioned for the technology segment. Timelines for technology adoption were qualitatively presented for the research and development mentioned above. Laser surface authentication and nanocluster identification were considered closest to application, while others like holographic features were already present as applications in the market. Qualitatively research trends were mentioned to be towards intelligent materials and packaging.
Comparative World wide and EU situation: Publications and Patents
The world wide activity in security was compared using a publication database MERIT and methodology developed within the Observatory Nano project. The comparison of countries conducting security research revealed in the period from 1998 - 2007, USA (44,885) was leading the publication in applications, followed by Peoples Republic of China (26,505) and Japan (18,312). Other top 10 world leading countries for publications in security were Germany (16,577), France (10,784), United Kingdom (9,488), South Korea (7,194), Italy (6,466), India (5,762), and Spain (5,050). Worlds top ten Institutions publishing security research are Chinese Academy of Science (6,692), Russian Academy of Science (2,502), CNRS (1969), University of Tokyo (1,811), Osaka University (1,552), University of Science and Technology China, Tohoku (1,538), Tsing Hua University (1,437), Nanjing University (1,384), and CNR (1,349). A more detailed view of the research institutions and world wide countries is available from the publication report.
Within Europe security research is led by Germany followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. The remaining top 10 countries in Europe for security research are Switzerland (3,330), Netherlands (3,038), Sweden (2,859), Poland (2,484), and Belgium (1,964). Institutions in Europe leading publications in security research, in a European journal, during the period of 1998-2007 were CNRS (1,966), CNR (1,329), CSIC (1,322), University of Cambridge (1,135), Russian Academy of Science (925), University of Paris (834), ETH (752), University of Oxford (730), and Polish Academy of Science (723). Research collaboration leading to joint publications between EU researchers and other world regions were also observed. The collaborating regions with highest number of joint publication records were noted to be USA (6,420), Russia (1,826), Japan (1,610) and Peoples Republic of China (1,288). Other leading top 10 collaboration researchers for security were observed to be from Canada (842), India (656), Israel (572), Australia (563), Brazil (515), and Ukraine (427). A number of European framework projects have been observed for each technology segment which are actively pursuing security research and development. These have been mentioned in the technology segment observations.
The patent analysis was based on the European Patent Office ‘World wide patent statistical database'. It was mentioned that 5944 patent documents resulted from the classification and keyword search. A more detailed view on the methodology used is available from the patent report. The leading country in the world was considered to be ‘United States' with 48% of the patents assigned, followed by ‘Japan' with 18% and ‘Germany' with 12% in third place. The combined output for European Union was mentioned to be 26% of the total security related patent documents. The correlation search in the International Patent Classification system revealed the main areas of patenting to be ‘measuring electric and magnetic variables', ‘measuring chemical and physical properties', ‘information storage', ‘biochemistry, enzymeology and microbiology', and ‘semi-conductor devices'.
Numerous challenges exist for security applications of nanotechnology. The development of capabilities enabling missions identified in the ESRAB will require overcoming the scientific and technological barriers. In addition each of the enabling nanotechnologies will have to demonstrate performance benefits at minimal costs in order for them to become mass applications. Integration of nanotechnology applications in existing systems to provide enhanced operational capabilities will be one of the biggest challenges to be overcome. The realisation of the potential offered by nanotechnologies for civilian security is expected to increase the safety and security of European citizens and also of other world regions. Future work of the ‘Security Technology' sector is expected to take into consideration outcomes and recommendations of the European Security Research and Innovation Forum.
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